%0 Journal Article %A En Liu %A Ho-Yih Liu %A Yea-Chen Liu %T Spore SEM studies on the genus Polystichum, Dryopteridaceae (Polypodiale, Pteridophyta) %D 2024 %J Taiwania %V 69 %N 2 %P 185-206 %U https://taiwania.ntu.edu.tw/abstract/1994 %X Palynological data is helpful at all levels of the taxonomic hierarchy. Therefore, we used SEM to examine spores of all Taiwan Polystichum species. The spore ornamentation types are almost consistent with the most recent classification hypothesis and can differentiate subgenera, sections, and species. Except for a few cases, each current species has one ornamentation type, and different species have different spore morphology. Development variation and cryptic species are possibilities for those species with more than one ornamentation type. %M doi:10.6165/tai.2024.69.185