TY -JOUR AU -En Liu AU -Ho-Yih Liu AU -Yea-Chen Liu TI -Spore SEM studies on the genus Polystichum, Dryopteridaceae (Polypodiale, Pteridophyta) PY -2024 DA -2024-05-16 JO -Taiwania VL -69 IS -2 SP -185 EP -206 UR -https://taiwania.ntu.edu.tw/abstract/1994 AB -Palynological data is helpful at all levels of the taxonomic hierarchy. Therefore, we used SEM to examine spores of all Taiwan Polystichum species. The spore ornamentation types are almost consistent with the most recent classification hypothesis and can differentiate subgenera, sections, and species. Except for a few cases, each current species has one ornamentation type, and different species have different spore morphology. Development variation and cryptic species are possibilities for those species with more than one ornamentation type. DO -10.6165/tai.2024.69.185