Many plants have been widely used in monitoring and assessing heavy metal pollution in soil, air and water. However, few studies have considered the unique value of bryophyte communities in monitoring manganese ore pollution and the diversity characteristics of bryophytes in different natural succession stages. Tongluojing Manganese Mine in Guizhou Province, China, was chosen for identifying bryophytes and statistical analyses. In total 61 species of mosses in 21 genera of 7 families were identified, including 8 dominant species, primarily representing the turf life-form. Following the successive stages from bare rock to woodland, single-species moss communities decreased while multi-species communities increased, with increment of the α diversity index. However, the β diversity index showed the opposite trend. The moss similarity index was the highest (0.43) and Cody index lowest (7.5) on bare rock, while the indices were the lowest (0.17) and the highest (18), respectively, in woodland. The Nemerow pollution index decreased gradually with the successive stages, with the bare rock area being the most polluted. The soil was polluted by Pb, Cr, Zn, Cd and Mn to varying degrees, among which Mn was the biggest pollutant with a concentration 129 times higher than the background value of the soil in Guizhou Province. There was a positive correlation between the contents of Cd, Cr, Zn and Mn in Weissia planifolia Dix and those in the substrate, suggesting that W. planifolia can be used as an indicator plant. This study highlighted multiple effects of mosses on heavy metal absorption, which could be used as pioneer plants for vegetation restoration in the manganese ore waste rock accumulation area.
Keyword: Biomonitors, heavy metal pollution, manganese carbonate mine, moss diversity
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