Research Paper

Carbon stock in the Thalassia hemprichii and Cymodocea rotundata predominated seagrass species at coastal waters of Pramuka Island, Indonesia

Isty Angrelina, Tri Prartono, Dietriech G. Bengen, Rastina

Published on: 12 November 2022

Page: 595 - 602

DOI: 10.6165/tai.2022.67.595


Seagrass beds are important carbon sinks that play a potential role in climate mitigation. The amount of carbon stored in seagrass ecosystems is greatly determined by the size of the seagrass species. This study aimed to determine the differences between carbon stocks in large seagrass represented by Thalassia hemprichii and smaller seagrass represented by Cymodocea rotundata in Pramuka Island, Seribu Islands, DKI Jakarta (Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta). Four stations were selected purposively to represent sites with different densities and predominant species. The parameters measured were characteristics of seagrass (species density, leaf area, biomass, and carbon stock) and environmental parameters (water depth and sediment grain size distribution). Seagrass carbon stock was measured using the Loss on Ignition (LOI) method. The results showed that the seagrass T. hemprichii had a higher density, leaf area, biomass, and carbon stock than those C. rotundata. The carbon stock of T. hemprichii in Pramuka Island was 18.22–443.73 g C m-2 while C. rotundata was 5.99–25.61 g C m-2. Moreover, large seagrasses have great potential to deposit more carbon in seagrass sediments. The analysis using PCA showed a relationship between the size of seagrass morphology and the amount of carbon stock. This study shows that seagrasses with large morphology strongly support the high value of carbon stocks stored in seagrass ecosystems.

Keyword: Blue carbon stock, climate change, organic carbon, productivity, Seribu Islands

Literature Cited

Angrelina, I., A Sartimbul and A.J. Wahyudi 2019. The potential of seagrass beds on the coast of Putri Menjangan as a carbon sequestration ecosystem on Bali Island. IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci. 241(1): 012010.
DOI: 10.1088/1755-1315/241/1/012010View Article Google Scholar

Bj?rk, M., F. Short, E. Mcleod and S. Beer 2008. Managing Seagrasses for Resilience to Climate Change. IUCN.

Blott, S. J and K. Pye 2001. Gradistat: A grain size distribution and statistics package for the analysis of unconsolidated sediments. Earth Surf. Process. Landf. 26(11): 1237–1248.
DOI: 10.1002/esp.261View Article Google Scholar

Duarte, C. M and C.L. Chiscano 1999. Seagrass biomass and production: a reassessment. Aquat. Bot. 65(1-4): 159–174.
DOI: 10.1016/S0304-3770(99)00038-8View Article Google Scholar

Duarte, C. M., M. Merino, N.S.R. Agawin, J. Uri, M.D. Fortes, M.E. Gallegos, N. Marb? and M.A. Hemminga 1998. Root production and belowground seagrass biomass. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 171: 97–108.
DOI: 10.3354/meps171097View Article Google Scholar

Feryatun, F., B. Hendrarto and N. Widyorini 2012. Kerapatan dan Distribusi Lamun (Seagrass) berdasarkan Zona Kegiatan yang Berbeda di Perairan Pulau Pramuka, Kepulauan Seribu. Management of Aquatic Resources Journal (MAQUARES) 1(1): 44–50. (In Bahasa).
DOI: 10.14710/marj.v1i1.255View Article Google Scholar

Fortes, M.D., J.L.S. Ooi, Y.M. Tan, A. Prathep, J.S. Bujang and S.M. Yaakub 2018. Seagrass in Southeast Asia: a review of status and knowledge gaps, and a road map for conservation. Bot. Mar. 61(3): 269–288.
DOI: 10.1515/bot-2018-0008View Article Google Scholar

Fourqurean, J.W., C.M. Duarte, H. Kennedy, N. Marb?, M. Holmer, M.A. Mateo, E.T. Apostolaki, G.A. Kendrick, D. Krause-Jensen, K.J McGlathery and O. Serrano 2012. Seagrass ecosystems as a globally significant carbon stock. Nat. Geosci. 5(7): 505–509.
DOI: 10.1038/ngeo1477View Article Google Scholar

Gladstone-Gallagher, R.V., R.W. Hughes, E.J. Douglas and C.A. Pilditch 2018. Biomass-dependent seagrass resilience to sediment eutrophication. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 501: 54–64.
DOI: 10.1016/j.jembe.2018.01.002View Article Google Scholar

Greiner, J.T., K.J. McGlathery, J. Gunnell and B.A. McKee 2013. Seagrass Restoration Enhances “Blue Carbon” Sequestration in Coastal Waters. PLoS ONE. 8(8): 1–8.
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0072469View Article Google Scholar

Halim, M., D.G. Bengen and T. Prartono 2020. Influence of turbidity and water depth on carbon storage in seagrasses, Enhalus acoroides and Halophila ovalis. AACL Bioflux. 13(1): 309–317.

Hansen, J.C.R. and M.A. Reidenbach 2012. Wave and tidally driven flows in eelgrass beds and their effect on sediment suspension. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 448: 271–287.
DOI: 10.3354/meps09225View Article Google Scholar

Howard, J., A. Sutton-Grier, D. Herr, J. Kleypas, E. Landis, E. Mcleod, E. Pidgeon and S. Simpson 2017. Clarifying the role of coastal and marine systems in climate mitigation. Front. Ecol. Environ. 15(1): 42–50.
DOI: 10.1002/fee.1451View Article Google Scholar

Huang, Y.H., C.L. Lee, C.Y. Chung, S.C. Hsiao and H.J. Lin 2015. Carbon budgets of multispecies seagrass beds at Dongsha Island in the South China Sea. Mar. Environ. Res. 106: 92–102.
DOI: 10.1016/j.marenvres.2015.03.004View Article Google Scholar

IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) 2014. Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. In: R.K. Pachauri & L. A. Meyer (eds.) Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. IPCC.

Irianto, S. 2007. Sedimen Permukaan Dasar Laut Teluk Jakarta, Kepulauan Seribu dan Pantai Lampung Timur. J. Teknol. 2: 22–35. (In Bahasa).

Jiang, Z., C. Zhao, S. Yu, S. Liu, L. Cui, Y. Wu, Y. Fang and X. Huang 2019. Contrasting root length, nutrient content and carbon sequestration of seagrass growing in offshore carbonate and onshore terrigenous sediments in the South China Sea. Sci. Total Environ. 662: 151–159.
DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.01.175View Article Google Scholar

Kennedy, H and M. Bj?rk 2009. Seagrass Meadows. In D.d’. Laffoley & G. Grimsditch (Ed.) The Management of Natural Coastal Carbon Sinks, Gland, Switzerland: IUCN, pp. 23–29.

Kilminster, K., K. McMahon, M. Waycott, G.A. Kendrick, P. Scanes, L. McKenzie, K.R. O’Brien, M. Lyons, A. Ferguson, P. Maxwell, T. Glasby and J. Udy 2015. Unravelling complexity in seagrass systems for management: Australia as a microcosm. Sci. Total Environ. 534: 97–109.
DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.04.061View Article Google Scholar

Macreadie, P.I., M.E. Baird, S.M. Trevathan-Tackett, A.W.D. Larkum and P.J. Ralph 2014. Quantifying and modelling the carbon sequestration capacity of seagrass meadows - A critical assessment. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 83(2): 430–439.
DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2013.07.038View Article Google Scholar

Mateo, M.A., J. Cebrian, K. Dunton and T. Mutchler 2006. Carbon Flux in Seagrass Ecosystems. In A. W. D. Larkum, R. J. Orth, & C. Duarte (Eds.) Seagrasses: Biology, Ecology and Conservation. 159–192 pp. Springer-Verlag.
DOI: 10.1007/1-4020-2983-7_7View Article Google Scholar

Mazarrasa, I., J. Samper-Villarreal, O. Serrano, P.S. Lavery, C.E. Lovelock, N. Marb?, C.M. Duarte and J. Cort?s 2018. Habitat characteristics provide insights of carbon storage in seagrass meadows. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 134: 106–117
DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2018.01.059View Article Google Scholar

McKenzie, L.J., S.J. Campbell and C.A. Roder 2003. Seagrasswatch: Manual for mapping & monitoring seagrass resources by community (citizen) volunteers 2sd edition. In The state of Queensland, Department of Primary Industries, CRC Reef. Queensland. Marine Plant Ecology Group, QDPI.

Mcleod, E., G.L. Chmura, S. Bouillon, R. Salm, M. Bj?rk, C.M. Duarte, C.E. Lovelock, W.H. Schlesinger and B.R. Silliman 2011. A blueprint for blue carbon: toward an improved understanding of the role of vegetated coastal habitats in sequestering CO2 In a nutshell: Front. Ecol. Environ. 9(10): 552–560.
DOI: 10.1890/110004View Article Google Scholar

Novak, A.B., M.C. Pelletier, P. Colarusso, J. Simpson, M.N. Gutierrez, A. Arias-Ortiz, M. Charpentier, P. Masque and P. Vella 2020. Factors Influencing Carbon Stocks and Accumulation Rates in Eelgrass Meadows Across New England, USA. Estuaries Coast 43(8): 432076–2091.
DOI: 10.1007/s12237-020-00815-zView Article Google Scholar

Rahmawati, S., E.U. Hernawan, K. McMahon, B. Prayudha, H.B. Prayitno, A.J Wahyudi and M. Vanderklift 2019. Blue Carbon in Seagrass Ecosystem: Guideline for the Assessment of Carbon Stock and Sequestration in Southeast Asia. Gadjah Mada University Press.

Rahmawati, S., A. Irawan, I.H. Supriyadi and M.H. Azkab 2014. Panduan Monitoring Padang Lamun (M. Hutomo & A. Nontji (eds.)). COREMAP CTI LIPI. (In Bahasa).

Ricart, A.M., M. P?rez and J. Romero 2017. Landscape configuration modulates carbon storage in seagrass sediments. Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 185: 69–76.
DOI: 10.1016/j.ecss.2016.12.011View Article Google Scholar

Ricart, A.M., P.H. York, M.A. Rasheed, M. P?rez, J. Romero, C.V. Bryant and P.I. Macreadie 2015. Variability of sedimentary organic carbon in patchy seagrass landscapes. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 100(1): 476–482.
DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2015.09.032View Article Google Scholar

R?hr, M.E., C. Bostr?m, P. Canal-Verg?s and M. Holmer 2016. Blue carbon stocks in Baltic Sea eelgrass (Zostera marina) meadows. Biogeosciences 13(22): 6139–6153.
DOI: 10.5194/bg-13-6139-2016View Article Google Scholar

Rozaimi, M., O. Serrano and P.S. Lavery 2013. Comparison of carbon stores by two morphologically different seagrasses. J. R. Soc. West. Aust. 96(2): 81–83.

Samper-Villarreal, J., C.E. Lovelock, M.I. Saunders, C. Roelfsema and P.J. Mumby 2016. Organic carbon in seagrass sediments is influenced by seagrass canopy complexity, turbidity, wave height, and water depth. Limnol. Oceanogr. 61(3): 938–952.
DOI: 10.1002/lno.10262View Article Google Scholar

Serrano, O., H. Almahasheer, C.M. Duarte and X. Irigoien 2018. Carbon stocks and accumulation rates in Red Sea seagrass meadows. Sci. Rep. 8(1): 1–13.
DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-33182-8View Article Google Scholar

Serrano, O., P.S. Lavery, M. Rozaimi and M. Mateo 2014. In?uence of water depth on the carbon sequestration capacity of seagrasses. Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 28(9): 950–961.
DOI: 10.1002/2014GB004872View Article Google Scholar

Short, F.T., B. Polidoro, S.R. Livingstone, K.E. Carpenter, S. Bandeira, J.S. Bujang, H.P. Calumpong, T.J.B. Carruthers, R.G. Coles, W.C. Dennison, P.L.A. Erftemeijer, M. D. Fortes, A. S. Freeman, T. G. Jagtap, A.H.M. Kamal, G.A. Kendrick, W. Judson Kenworthy, Y.A. La Nafie, I. M. Nasution, R.J. Orth, A. Prathep, J.C. Sanciangco, B. van Tussenbroek, S.G. Vergara, M. Waycott, C. Zieman 2011. Extinction risk assessment of the world’s seagrass species. Biol. Conserv. 144(7): 1961–1971.
DOI: 10.1016/j.biocon.2011.04.010View Article Google Scholar

Stankovic, M., J. Panyawai, K. Jansanit, T. Upanoi and A. Prathep 2017. Carbon content in different seagrass species in Andaman Coast of Thailand. Sains Malays. 46(9): 1441–1447.
DOI: 10.17576/jsm-2017-4609-12View Article Google Scholar

Suhana, M.P., I.W. Nurjaya and N.M. Natih 2016. Coastal Vulnerability Analysis of East Coast Bintan Island Using Digital Shoreline Analysis and Coastal Vulnerability Index. Jurnal Teknologi Perikanan Dan Kelautan 7(1): 21–38. (In Bahasa).
DOI: 10.24319/jtpk.7.21-38View Article Google Scholar

Tupan, C.I., F. Sangur and G.W. Lailossa 2021. Carbon Potential on Seagrass Thalassia hemprichii and Enhalus acoroides in Waai Coastal Waters Ambon Island. J. Sumberd. Akuatik Indopasifik 5(3): 293–302. (In Bahasa).
DOI: 10.46252/jsai-fpik-unipa.2021.Vol.5.No.3.169View Article Google Scholar

Utami, D.A., L. Reuning and S.Y. Cahyarini 2018. Satellite? and field?based facies mapping of isolated carbonate platforms from the Kepulauan Seribu Complex, Indonesia. J. Int. Assoc. Sedimentol. 4(2): 255–273.
DOI: 10.1002/dep2.47View Article Google Scholar

Vizzini, S., E.T. Apostolaki, E. Ricevuto, P. Polymenakou and A. Mazzola 2019. Plant and sediment properties in seagrass meadows from two Mediterranean CO2 vents: Implications for carbon storage capacity of acidified oceans. Mar. Environ. Res.146: 101–108.
DOI: 10.1016/j.marenvres.2019.03.001View Article Google Scholar

Waycott, M., C. M. Duarte, T.J.B. Carruthers, R.J. Orth, W.C. Dennison, S. Olyarnik, A. Calladine, J.W. Fourqurean, K.L. Heck, A.R. Hughes, G.A. Kendrick, W.J. Kenworthy, F.T. Short and S.L. Williams 2009. Accelerating loss of seagrasses across the globe threatens coastal ecosystems. PNAS 106(30): 12377–12381.
DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0905620106View Article Google Scholar

Windusari, Y., S. Sarno, E. Saleh and L. Hanum 2014. Substrate characteristics and its Impact on distribution of mangrove species: A case study in Sungai Barong Kecil in The Sembillang National Park at Banyuasin, South Sumatra. J. Biol. Res. 20(1): 82–86.
DOI: 10.23869/bphjbr.20.1.20141View Article Google Scholar

Yunita, I.D., N. Widyorini and Supriharyono 2018. Influence of Seagrass Thalassia hemprichii Density on the Abundance of Heterotrophic Bacteria at Prawean Beach, Jepara. Journal of Maquares. 7(4): 415–422. (In Bahasa).
DOI: 10.14710/marj.v7i4.22664View Article Google Scholar