Research Paper

Two new species of Primula (Primulaceae) from Yunnan, China

Bin Yang, Ji-Dong Ya, Wei Zhang, Yu Song, Wen Wang, Zheng-Min Zhu, Jiang-Hai He, Yun-Jun Zuo, Yun-Hong Tan

Published on: 30 May 2023

Page: 230 - 240

DOI: 10.6165/tai.2023.68.230


Primula sugongii J.D.Ya, Bin Yang & Y.H.Tan and P. zhengyii Bin Yang & Y.H.Tan, two new species of Primulaceae from Yunlong County and Luchun County, Yunnan Province, China, are described based on morphological characters and phylogenetic evidence, and colour plates of these two species are also provided. The molecular phylogenetic analysis using the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (nrITS) and chloroplast genome, Primula sugongii was nested within the clade with most members of sect. Obconicolisteri, for Primula zhengyii, the phylogenetic position and its affiliation is somewhat controversial. Based on the comprehensive morphological evidence, they are affiliated to Primula sect. Obconicolisteri Balf. f.. Primula sugongii is morphologically similar to P. barbicalyx C.H.Wright in having short and pilose scapes and calyx, but it can be easily distinguished by its longer corolla tube and corolla exannulate at throat, and series of other characters of the leaf blade. Primula zhengyii is morphologically similar to P. zhui Y.H.Tan & Bin Yang and P. intanoensis T. Yamaz., but clearly differs from P. zhui by its shorter corolla tube and smaller flowers size and differs from P. intanoensis by its distylous flowers and several other characters of leaf blade.

Keyword: Primula barbicalyx, Primula intanoensis, Primula sugongii, Primula zhengyii, Primula zhui, Section Obconicolisteri

Literature Cited

Averyanov, L.V., Nguyen, K.S., Tran, T.H., Averyanova, A.L., Maisak, T.V., Nguyen, H.T. 2020 Plant diversity, flora and vegetation of Bat Dai Son Mountain area, North Vietnam. Saint-Petersburg, STRATA, 561pp.

Darriba, D., Taboada, G.L., Doallo, R., Posada, D. 2012 jModelTest 2: moremodels, newheuristics and parallel computing. Nat. Methods 9(8): 772–772.
DOI: 10.1038/nmeth.2109View Article Google Scholar

Fang, D. 1998 Two new taxa of Primula Linn. (Primulaceae) from Guangxi, China. J. Tropic. Subtropic. Bot. 6(1): 49–51.

Gong, X., Fang, R.-C. 2003 Primula calyptrata, a new speciesin section Carolinella (Primulaceae) from Yunnan, China. Novon 13(2): 193–195.
DOI: 10.2307/3393517View Article Google Scholar

Hu, C.-M. 1990a. Primula. In: Chen, F.- H. and C.- M. Hu (eds.), Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin., Vol. 59. Science Press, Beijing, pp. 1–277.

Hu, C.-M. 1990b A new species of Primula from Thailand with critical notes on the section Carolinella. Nord. J. Bot. 10(4): 399–401.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1756-1051.1990.tb01779.xView Article Google Scholar

Hu, C.-M. 1998 Diversity and distribution of Primula in China. In: Qiu, S.-T. and C.-I. Peng (eds.), Plant diversity and conservation by the Cross-strait. National Museum of Natural Science, pp. 24–27.

Hu, C.-M. 1999 Primulaceae. In: Santisuk T. and K. Larsen (eds.), Flora of Thailand, Vol. 7, Part 1. Diamond printing Co. Ltd., pp.155–168.

Hu, C.-M, Kelso, S. 1996 Primulaceae. In: Wu, Z.-Y. and P. H. Raven (eds.), Flora of China, Vol. 15. Science Press, Beijing and Miss. Bot. Gard. Press, St. Louis, pp. 39–78.

IUCN Standards and Petitions Committee 2022 Guidelines for Using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. Version 15. Prepared by the Standards and Petitions Committee. Available from: (accessed 21 March 2022).

Jin, J.-J., Yu, W.-B., Yang, J.-B., Song, Y., dePamphilis, C., Yi, T.-S., Li, D.-Z. 2020 GetOrganelle: a fast and versatile toolkit for accurate de novo assembly of organelle genomes. Genome Biol. 21(1): 241.
DOI: 10.1186/s13059-020-02154-5View Article Google Scholar

Ju, W.-B., Huang, Q., Sun, Z.-Y., Huang, W.-J., Li, H.-C., Gao, X.-F. 2018 Primula luteoflora (Primulaceae), a new species from Sichuan, China. Phytotaxa 367(3): 297–300.
DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.367.3.10View Article Google Scholar

Ju, W.-B., Deng, H.-N., Zhu, D.-H., Gao, Y.-D., Gao, X.-F., Xu, B. 2021 Primula dujiangyanensis (Primulaceae) discovered from Sichuan, Southwest China. Phytotaxa 510(3): 275–280.
DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.510.3.7View Article Google Scholar

Katoh, K., Standley, D.M. 2013 MAFFT multiple sequence alignment software Version 7: improvements in performance and usability. Mol. Biol. Evol. 30(4): 772–780.
DOI: 10.1093/molbev/mst010View Article Google Scholar

Kearse, M., Moir, R., Wilson, A., Stones-Havas, S., Cheung, M., Sturrock, S., Buxton, S., Cooper, A., Markowitz, S., Duran, C., Thierer, T., Ashton, B., Meintjes, P., Drummond, A. 2012. Geneious basic: an integrated and extendable desktop software platform for the organization and analysis of sequence data. Bioinformatics 28(12): 1647–1649.
DOI: 10.1093/bioinformatics/bts199View Article Google Scholar

Li, X.-W., Bao, D.-C., Huang, H.-D., Xie, J.-F. 2017 Primula hubeiensis (Primulaceae), a new species from central China. Novon 25(2): 162–165.
DOI: 10.3417/2016032View Article Google Scholar

Li, X., Cheng, Y.-H., Lin, H.-Q., Chen, C., Gao, X.-F., Deng, H.-N., Yu, F., An?elka, P.M., Ju, W.-B., Xu, B. 2023 Primula wolongensis (Primulaceae), a new species of the primrose from Sichuan, China. PhytoKeys 218: 47–57.
DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.218.91161View Article Google Scholar

Liu, Y.-J., Liu, J., Hu, C.-M., Hao, G. 2015 Non-monophyly of Primula subgenera Auganthus and Carolinella (Primlaceae) as confirmed by the nuclear DNA sequence variation. Plant Syst. Evol. 301(8): 2057–2071.
DOI: 10.1007/s00606-015-1207-0View Article Google Scholar

Ma, X.-D., Wang, W.-G., Shi, J.-P., Shen, J.-Y. 2021 Primula longistyla (Primulaceae), a new species from Yunnan, China. Nord. J. Bot., 39(10): e03341.
DOI: 10.1111/njb.03341View Article Google Scholar

Pax, F., Knuth, R. 1905 Primulaceae. In: A. Engler, Das Pflanzenreich. Vol. 27, Verlag von Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig, pp. 1–15.

Rambaut, A. 2012 Figtree 1.4.3. Available at

Rankin, D.W.H. 2019 906. PRIMULA AMBITA, Primulaceae. Curtis's Bot. Mag. 36(1): 46–58.
DOI: 10.1111/curt.12271View Article Google Scholar

Richards, J. 2003 Primula, 2nd ed. Timber Press, London, pp. 1–346.

Smith, W.W., Fletcher, H.R. 1946 The genus Primula: sections Obconica, Sinensis, Reinii, Pinnatae, Malacoides, Bullatae, Carolinella, Grandis and Denticulata. Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinb. 61(2): 415–478.
DOI: 10.1017/S0080456800004828View Article Google Scholar

Stamatakis, A. 2014 RAxML version 8: a tool for phylogenetic analysis and postanalysis of large phylogenies. Bioinformatics 30(9): 1312–1313.
DOI: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btu033View Article Google Scholar

Sun, J., Zhang, D.-G., Huang, X.-H., Tojibaev, K., Yang, J.-Y., Wang, H.-C., Deng, T. 2020 Primula sunhangii (Primulaceae): a new species from Hubei, Central China. PhytoKeys 156: 103–112.
DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.156.49137View Article Google Scholar

Tillich, M., Lehwark, P., Pellizzer, T., Ulbricht-Jones, E.S., Fischer, A., Bock, R., Greiner, S. 2017 GeSeq–versatile and accurate annotation of organelle genomes. Nucleic Acids Res. 45(W1): W6–W11.
DOI: 10.1093/nar/gkx391View Article Google Scholar

Wang, Z.-H., Wang, Y., Chen, L., Peng, H., Wu, Z.-K., Guo, G. 2022 Primula longipilosa (Primulaceae), a new species from Yunnan, China. PhytoKeys 194: 15–22.
DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.194.81335View Article Google Scholar

Wang, S.-Q., Yan, H.-F., Cheng, Z.-J., Wang, Y.-B. 2023 Primula xingshanensis (Primulaceae), a new species from Hubei, China. Phytotaxa 594 (2): 158–162.
DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.594.2.8View Article Google Scholar

Wei, D., Wang, W., Xu, Y., Hao, G. 2022 Primula tsaiana (Primulaceae), a new species from Yunnan, China, and a new synonym of P. wenshanensis. Ann. Bot. Fennici 59(1): 111–116.
DOI: 10.5735/085.059.0117View Article Google Scholar

Wu, Z.-K., Zhao, F.-W., Chen, J.-H., Huang, Y. 2019 Primula dongchuanensis (Primulaceae), a new species from northern Yunnan, China. In: Cai, J., W.-B. Yu, T. Zhang and D.-Z. Li (eds.), Revealing of the plant diversity in China’s biodiversity hotspots. PhytoKeys 130: 171–181.
DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.130.35047View Article Google Scholar

Wu, Z.-K., Guo, Y.-J., Zhang, T., Burgess, K.S., Zhou, W. 2023 Primula luquanensis sp. nov. (Primulaceae), a new species from Southwestern China, reveals a novel floral form in the heterostyly-prevailing Genus. Plants 12: 534.
DOI: 10.3390/plants12030534View Article Google Scholar

Xu, Y., Yu, X.-L., Hu, C.-M., Hao, G. 2016 Morphological and molecular phylogenetic data reveal a new species of Primula (Primulaceae) from Hunan, China. PLoS ONE 11(8): e0161172.
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0161172View Article Google Scholar

Xu, Y., Hu, C.-M., Hao, G. 2017a Primula centellifolia (Primulaceae), a new species from south-central China. Phytotaxa 326(4): 259–263.
DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.326.4.4View Article Google Scholar

Xu, Y., Huang, G.-H., Hu, C.-M., Hao, G. 2017b Primula pengzhouensis (Primulaceae), a new species from Sichuan, southwestern China. Pl. Diversity 39(4): 229–231.
DOI: 10.1016/j.pld.2017.08.003View Article Google Scholar

Xu, Y., Hu, C.-M., Hao, G. 2019 Primula vallicola sp. nov. (Primulaceae) from Sichuan, China. Nord. J. Bot. 37(7): e02116.
DOI: 10.1111/njb.02116View Article Google Scholar

Xu, Y., He, D.-M., Yang, L.-.Z, Hao, G. 2022a Primula surculosa (Primulaceae), a new species from Yunnan, China. PhytoKeys 212: 29–35.
DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.212.91133View Article Google Scholar

Xu, Y., Liu, T.-J., Hu, C.-M., Hao, G. 2022b Primula chishuiensis (Primulaceae), a new species from Guizhou, China. Nord. J. Bot. 2022(9): e03670.
DOI: 10.1111/njb.03670View Article Google Scholar

Yamazaki, T. 1988 A new species of Primula from Thailand. J. Jpn. Bot. 63(6): 211–213.

Yan, H.-F., He, C.-H., Peng, C.-I., Hu, C.-M., Hao, G. 2010 Circumscription of Primula subgenus Auganthus (Primulaceae) based on chloroplast DNA sequences. J. Syst. Evol. 48(2): 123–132.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1759-6831.2010.00068.xView Article Google Scholar

Yang, B., Ding, H.-B., Li, Z.-H., Tan, Y.-H. 2017 Primula zhui (Primulaceae) sp. nov. from south Yunnan, southwest China. Nord. J. Bot. 35(6): 681–686
DOI: 10.1111/njb.01656View Article Google Scholar

Yu, X.-L., Xu, Y., Hu, C.-M., Hao, G. 2015 Primula hunanensis sp. nov. (Primulaceae) from Hunan, south – central China. Nord. J. Bot. 33(3): 381–384.
DOI: 10.1111/njb.00713View Article Google Scholar

Yuan, S., Zhang, D.-X., Hao, G. 2018 Primula chimingiana sp.nov. (Primulaceae) from Sichuan, China. Nord. J. Bot. 36(1-2): e01390.
DOI: 10.1111/njb.01390View Article Google Scholar

Zhang, C., Zhang, J.-Y., Chen, F.-M., Chen, W.-H., Chen, D.-S., Shao, J.-W. 2020a Primula qiupuensis, a new species in Primulaceae from China. Phytotaxa 441(2): 176–182.
DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.441.2.4View Article Google Scholar

Zhang, D., Gao, F.-L., Jakovlic, I., Zou, H., Zhang, J., Li, W.-X., Wang, G.-T. 2020b PhyloSuite: an integrated and scalable desktop platform for streamlined molecular sequence data management and evolutionary phylogenetics studies. Mol. Ecol. Resour. 20(1): 348–355.
DOI: 10.1111/1755-0998.13096View Article Google Scholar

Zhang, W., Zhang, Y., Shao, J.-W. 2022 Primula xinningensis (Primulaceae), a new species from karst caves in Hunan, China. PhytoKeys 199: 155–166.
DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.199.85231View Article Google Scholar

Zhang, N., Jiang, X.-Q., Wu, Z.-K. 2023 Primula pingbaensis (Primulaceae), a new species from Guizhou, China. PhytoKeys 221: 85–93.
DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.221.97948View Article Google Scholar

Zhong, L., Barrett, S.C.H., Wang, X.-J., Wu, Z.-K., Sun, H.-Y., Li, D.-Z., Wang, H., Zhou, W. 2019 Phylogenomic analysis reveals multiple evolutionary origins of selfing from outcrossing in a lineage of heterostylous plants. New Phytol. 224(3): 1290–1303.
DOI: 10.1111/nph.15905View Article Google Scholar