The Cucurbitaceae family is characterized by bicollateral vascular bundles with both outer and inner phloem. Studies on the secondary growth of bicollateral vascular bundles are scarce. The secondary growth of cambia were observed in approximately 12 Cucurbitaceae climbers from Taiwan. The experimental results showed that stems cross-section of cambial variant types presented irregular conformation, axial vascular elements in segments, furrows xylem of the phloem wedge, successive cambia, external secondary vascular cylinder, and a combination type of two or three cambial variants. Most species have ten bicollateral vascular bundles and arranged in the outer and inner cylinders, as well as few species have 14 and 20 bundles. Neoalsomitra clavigera (Wall.) Hutch. has14 bicollateral vascular bundle, which divided by two broad rays and arranged in two cylinder equally. Momordica cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng. exhibits 20 vascular bundles, which divided by four broad rays, five in inner cylinder and 15 in outer cylinder. Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino developed three secondary vascular bundles in the ray dilatation region. Momordica charantia L. developed external secondary vascular cylinder from the outer cylinder of the cortical bicollateral vascular bundle. In the young stem, Sinobaijiania taiwaniana (Hayata) C. Jeffrey & W.J. de Wilde has 12 bicollateral vascular bundles arranged unequally, five in outer and seven in inner cylinder. Different species will be validated based on the features of secondary growth in cambia. This report provides fundamental information about cambial variants of selected Cucurbitaceae climbers as common taxonomic characteristics.
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